You can use mysqldump to create a simple backup of your database using the following syntax:
mysqldump -u [username] -p[password] -h[host] [databasename] > [backupfile.sql]
mysql -u [username] -p[password] -h[host] [databasename] < [backupfile.sql]
- [username] - this is your database username
- [password] - this is the password for your database
- [databasename] - the name of your database
- [host] - this is db hostname (optional)
- [backupfile.sql] - the file to which the backup should be written/read.